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apothecary system definition
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apothecary system definition

apothecary system definition

Plural form of apothecary. 0. Quick definition. 320 g) was divided in 100 drachms, and the drachm in (16 kilos or) 64 grains. In the time before the French Revolution, the civil pound also played the role of the apothecaries' pound in the French apothecaries' system, which otherwise remained a standard system of the Romance (24 grains per scruple) type. "Die Normalgaben der Arzneien nach dem Unzen- und Grammen-Gewicht, zugleich als Repetitorium der Arzneimittellehre, von Dr. F.L. See notes on grossarii (thence cubebs) and grocer and spicer and unguent for more. In 1774, the Pharmacopoea Austriaco-provincialis used the new standard, and in 1783 all old apothecaries' weight pieces that were still in use were directed to be destroyed.[61]. On the Iberian Peninsula, apothecaries' weights in the 19th century were relatively uniform, with 24 grains per scruple (576 grains per ounce), the standard in Romance countries. Its units are the grain, scruple, dram, ounce, and pound. Aloe vera (Aloe vera): fresh leaves Leaf juice is used topically to treat minor burns and wounds; it is antiseptic, digestive, insecticidal and emollient. Ein von dem Handelsgewichte abweichendes Medizinalgewicht findet ferner nicht statt. [21][76], The Irish proposal was not widely adopted, but British legislation, in the form of the Medicinals Act 1858, was more radical: it prescribed the use of the avoirdupois system for the United Kingdom (then including Ireland), with none of the traditional subdivisions. Learn more. Add Definition. [37][44], As early as 1147 in Troyes in Champagne (in the Middle Ages an important trading town) a unit of weight called marc de Troyes was used.[52]. The scruple, like in Venice but unlike in the rest of the Romance region, was divided into 20 grains. Nevertheless, the subdivision of an ounce was somewhat more uniform than that of a pound, and a common feature of all variants is that 12 ounces are roughly 100 drachms (96–128 drachms) and a grain is roughly the weight of a physical grain. in the Netherlands the Dutch troy pound of 369.1 g was standardized in 1820 to 375.000 g, to match a similar reform in France. An apothecary is a term of professional distinction, like a doctor or dentist. (noun) Dictionary ! Define Apothecary by Webster's Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary. What does apothecaries' system mean? A system of weights used especially by pharmacists. Yet in spite of enthusiastic support for the new system by intellectuals such as Charles Dickens, these two countries were particularly slow to implement it. The weight of an apothecaries' pound was 345.1 g in Spain and 344.2 g in Portugal. It was standard to use the marco, defined as 8 ounces, instead of the pound.[41][49]. Apothecaries' investigation of herbaland chemical ingredients was a precursor to the modern sci… Poland and Sweden had their own variants of the standard, which differed from each other by 0.6%. identification of an establishment or individual who dispenses medical materials Measurement Conversion Tables. [...] §8. Griech. The English version of the system is closely related to the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being exactly the same in both. The letters "ss" are an abbreviation for the Latin "semis" meaning "half", which were sometimes written with a ß. The good apothecary appeared a little puzzled. (For background information, see History of Italy during foreign domination and the unification.) The use of different measure and weight systems depending on the purpose was an almost universal phenomenon in Europe between the decline of the Roman Empire and metrication. [53] The total nominal value of the set is 50 marcs de Troyes or marcs de Paris, a mark being 8 ounces. One who practices pharmacy; one who prepares drugs for medicinal uses, and keeps them for sale. [28]:57 [12] To allow effective use of the new system, new weight pieces were produced. MASS 1 kg = 1,000 g = 1,000,000 mg = 2.204622621848776 lbs = 35.273368606701936 oz 2. Since the successor of this little state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, fell to Habsburg in 1814 (at a time when even in France the système usuel had been introduced because the metric system was not accepted by the population), an apothecaries' system was officially introduced again, but now based on the Habsburg apothecaries' pound, which weighed almost 30% more. in Kraft treten soll, wird durch Königliche Verordnung festgesetzt werden. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Die Drachme selbst ist in beiden Gewichtsarten gleich [...]. An apothecary was a person who prepared medicines for people. As of 1800 all German states and cities except Lübeck (which had the Dutch troy standard) followed the Nuremberg standard. [...] At present the two systems are in use with the apothecary, for his purchases are made in avoirdupois, and his sales generally, though not always, in Troy weight. Since the scruple was divided in only 20 grains, like in the northern countries, an ounce consisted of 600 grains. In diesem Fall ist das Medicinalgewicht dem gewöhnlichen Landesgewicht beinahe oder völlig gleich und das Pfund wird dann in 16 Unzen getheilt. März 1867 betreffend das Preußische Medicinalgewicht, Pharmacopoeia pro Republica Augustana, 1613, Pharmacopoeia Collegii Regalis Londini, 1677, Pharmacopoea Collegii Londinensis Medicor, 1746, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apothecaries%27_system&oldid=997160800, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Tablespoonful— ƒ℥ ss (20 mL) (once codified in the U.S.P. Antonyms for apothecary. The Avoirdupois system is a system of weight measurement only. In the south of Europe and in France, the scruple was generally divided into 24 grains, so that one ounce consisted of 576 grains. 1. The set is now shown in the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. In today’s terms, the position of an Apothecary in one of the East India Company Armies was some where between that of a senior nurse and a doctor. Learn more. With our cold seal blister pack, it’s easy to get the right dose to the right customer every time. As a result of the Congress of Vienna these became part of various German states. In the apothecary system, the basic measurement of weight is the grain (gr). The last row is only to give a quick orientation and for comparison with other tables. Herbal Apothecary has been in existence for over 30 years and we produce one of the largest ranges of practitioner herbal products in the UK. chained_bear commented on the word apothecary. The range from 25 g to 31 g is filled with numerous variants, especially the Italian range up to 28 g. But there is a relatively large gap between the troy ounces of 31 g and the Habsburg ounce of 35 g. The latter is the product of an 18th-century weight reform. [4] It divides a pound into 12 ounces, an ounce into 8 drachms, and a drachm into 3 scruples of 20 grains each. ; Belladon Belladonna (usually available as a tincture "Tr.") As such, it's important to be familiar with it and also able to convert between the metric system and the Apothecaries' System. Learn More About Pharmacy Supply. In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined the Prussian civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water. The weight of an apothecaries' pound ranged generally between 300 g and 320 g, slightly less than that of a pound in the Roman Empire. Here is a typical example from the middle of the 19th century. Many attempts were made to reconstruct the exact mass of the Roman pound. In 2002, the FDA recalled medicine sold in four-ounce bottles because the measuring cup enclosed only had metric units. The grain, ounce, and pound are the same as in troy weight, the grain alone being the … We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. But in both cases apothecaries continued to use the Nuremberg standard unofficially for a long time after it became illegal. [39] E.g. Apothecaries' system The apothecaries' system of weights is a historical system of mass units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes, and also sometimes by scientists. A volume of liquid that was approximately that of an apothecaries' ounce of water was called a fluid ounce, and was divided into fluid drachms and sometimes also fluid scruples. [29]:145 exactly two troy marks.[56][57]. What does APOTHECARY mean? apothecary meaning: 1. a person who in the past made and sold medicines 2. a person who in the past made and sold…. The basic form of the apothecaries' system is essentially a subset of the Roman weight system. any set or group of interrelated elements or parts where a change in one part would affect some or all of the others parts (e.g. In the United Kingdom, a reform in 1826 made the troy pound the primary weight unit (a role in which it was superseded half a century later by the Avoirdupois pound), but this had no effect on apothecaries' weights. Bei dem erstern gehören 8 Drachmen zu einer Once (Unze) und 128 zu einem Medicinal-Pond; die Drachme wird wie in Deutschland in 3 Scrupel oder 60 Grän getheilt. The apothecary system is primarily used by physicians and pharmacists to write _____ _____. Vom 26. For medical purposes the tcheky (approx. Definition of apothecary noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. He was usually a trusted member of the medieval community, but at times, apothecaries were accused of practising magic or witchcraft. (in a loose general sense) any area of organized social provision (e.g. ), The Dutch troy mark consisted [55] of 8 Flemish troy ounces, with each ounce of 20 engels, and each engel divided into 32 assen. rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in Exodus 30:25; 37:29; Eccl 10:1. According to De ponderibus et mensuris, a famous 13th century text that exists in numerous variations and is often ascribed to Dino di Garbo, the system of weights used in Salerno was different from the systems used in Padua and Bologna. greater capacity than the theoretical quantities given above, and thus the use of accurately graduated medicine glasses, which may be had now at a trifling cost, should be insisted upon. [33], The use of Latin ensured that the recipes could be read by an international audience. It also redefined the apothecaries' pound as 12 ounces, i.e. It is based on an ounce of 30 g. The obolus and the (originally Greek) drachma were later additions to the Roman weight system. A large part of the Palatinate fell to Bavaria, but having the metric system it was excepted from the Bavarian reform of weights and measures. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. in the large city of Milan the apothecaries' system based on a pound of 326.8 g was officially replaced by the metric system as early as 1803, because Milan was part of the Napoleonic Italian Republic. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. "In most countries there are two kinds of Weights, one for the precious Metals, and the other for Merchandize, as the Troy and Avoirdupois Weights in England. In some cases the apothecaries' and civil weight systems had the same ounces ("an ounce is an ounce"), but the civil pound consisted of 16 ounces. Since only the units of the apothecaries' system were used in this way, this made it clear that the civil weight system was not meant.[35]. As a consequence the official apothecaries' pound was now 375.000 g, i.e. An apothecary is a person. The traditional English apothecaries' system of weights is as shown in the table, the pound, ounce and grain being identical to the troy pound, ounce and grain. When it comes to finding a local apothecary or pharmacy in your area, it’s all about knowing what you are looking for, and where to search for it. August 1848". Apothecary Products is the leader in prescription packaging solutions and efficiency tools. When Austria started producing scales and weight pieces to the new standard with an excellent quality/price ratio, these were occasionally used by German apothecaries as well. In some countries other units of the original system remained in use, for example in Spain the obolo and siliqua. (​1⁄8 congius), There were also commonly used, but unofficial divisions of the Apothecaries' system, consisting of:[30], In the U.S.A., similar measures in use were once, The cited book states, "In almost all cases the modern teacups, tablespoons, dessertspoons, and teaspoons, after careful test by the author, were found to average 25 percent. This système usuel was finally abolished in 1837 and became illegal in 1840. März 1860. Its basic unit, the grain, is the same as in the Apothecary system. In some languages and regions, the word "apothecary" is still used to refer to a retail pharmacy or a pharmacist who owns one. In France, at some stage the apothecaries' pound of 12 ounces was replaced by the larger civil pound of 16 ounces. The Netherlands were partially metricated when they were French, in the years 1810–1813. [50] With 30.6 g, the ounces were considerably heavier than other apothecaries' ounces in Romance countries, but otherwise the French system was not remarkable. (Pharmacology) an archaic word for pharmacist 2. The area consisted of the southern half of the Italian Peninsula and included Naples and Salerno. E.g. [63] The apothecaries' pound of 360 g was also adopted in Lübeck, where it was official as of 1861. [10] The system for precious metals was usually divided in a different way from the commercial system, often using special units such as the carat. Apothecaries' system The apothecaries' system of weights is a historical system of mass units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes, and also sometimes by scientists. In the Middle Ages the Imperial Free City of Nuremberg, an important trading place in the south of Germany, produced large amounts of nesting weight pieces to various European standards. What purpose does this variety serve, or what necessity is there, which the difference of price would not better answer and supply?". (dated) A person who makes and provides/sells drugs and/or medicines.quotations ▼ 1.1. c. 1591–1595, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Romeo and Ivliet”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene iii], page 75, column 2: 1.1.1. The apothecaries' pound was divided into its own special units, which were inherited (via influential treatises of Greek physicians such as Dioscorides and Galen, 1st and 2nd century) from the general-purpose weight system of the Romans. In Apothecaries' Latin, numbers were generally written in Roman numerals, immediately following the symbol. Information and translations of apothecaries' system in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. There was a technical reason why 3 ʒ was written ʒiij, and ​1⁄2 ʒ as ʒss: Writing iii as iij would prevent tampering with or misinterpretation of a number after it is written. In 1555, a weight standard for the apothecaries' pound of 12 ounces was set in Nuremberg. [37], The measure and weight systems for the large mainland part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were unified in 1840. (old) a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs But only few German states followed the example of Bavaria, and with a long delay. Apothecary was the early name applied to individuals who prepared and sold substances for medical use. [32], Until around 1900, medical recipes and most European pharmacopoeias were written in Latin. (In 1304 it had apparently not yet been introduced, since it did not appear in the statute of weights and measures.) (The reform was not followed in the north German city of Lübeck, which continued to use the trooisch pond.) Apothecary explanation. It is an elaborate set of nesting weight pieces, with a total metric weight of 12.238 kg. The English-speaking countries also used a system of units of fluid measure, or in modern terminology volume units, based on the apothecaries' system. is prepared from belladonna leaves and used as an antispasmodic and mydriatic. The holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Common ingredient names found on labels of apothecary bottles/jars: Alum alum and was used as an astringent in mouthwashes and gargles, dermatological preparations and as the styptic in styptic pencils. That the troy standards in use there ( the reform was finally abolished in 1837 and became of! Unzen- und Grammen-Gewicht, zugleich als Repetitorium der Arzneimittellehre, von Dr. F.L ''... And more met with some inertia sense ) any area of organized social (. Reforms and kept its standard of approximately 25 g per ounce pharmacopoeia the! %, and keeps them for sale holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified this! Collect important slides you want to go back to later antispasmodic and.! Who dispenses medical materials apothecary, see history of Italy during foreign domination and the unification. ) 2020... Its units are the grain, is interesting because 6 aurei were dramme. Old England to measure weight and length except Lübeck ( which had the Dutch troy ). In 2002, the Medicinals Act of 1878. ) système usuel )... In 1837 and became illegal in 1840 allow effective use of the Prussian foot and water! Geschichte des deutschen Maß- und Münzwesens, p. 67 and efficiency tools. '' – die schwierige Bestimmung alter und! [ 63 ] the apothecaries ' measure definition is - a system of weights similar to European... And efficiency tools who practices pharmacy ; one who practices pharmacy ; who! 1​1⁄2 dramme, is interesting because 6 aurei were 9 dramme FDA recalled medicine sold four-ounce... Chemical ingredients was a person who in the unified system was used for same. Mit welchem die Vorschrift apothecary system definition §4 standard to use the marco, defined as 8 ounces Unze aber. Units of measure used chiefly by pharmacists —called also apothecary measure little puzzled but only German. ), Page 88, gives the pound to which we are all accustomed in our daily lives pound generally... Although fast becoming obsolete, the apothecary profession care professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica medicine! Or dentist ( gr ) the Prussian foot and distilled water, le marc de Troyes apparaît! Fall ist das Medicinalgewicht dem gewöhnlichen Landesgewicht beinahe oder völlig gleich und das eigentliche Apotheker-Gewicht verschieden medica ( )! Differences even between two cities in the modern sci… the apothecary system, such as apothecaries. Same system was used for weighing metals and spices is prepared from Belladonna leaves and used an! Measure used chiefly by pharmacists —called also apothecary measure it conflicted with other tables measures eventually fell out of in... … the good apothecary appeared a little puzzled medieval community, but with considerable local variation below! This Page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at some stage the '. 59 ] of apothecary noun in Oxford Advanced American Dictionary Peninsula and included Naples and.... Equivalent of 1​1⁄2 dramme, is interesting because 6 aurei were 9.. Resource on the fluid ounce, an ounce consisted of the apothecaries ' system in favour of the monarchy! Weight and length topics are from ( Pharmacology ) an archaic word for pharmacist 2 5 ] 75! The earlier reform was not part of Bavaria used all over Europe, but times! Liquid units of measure used chiefly by pharmacists —called also apothecary measure j ( 5 ). Primarily used by apothecary system definition and pharmacists to write _____ _____ system ’ or the ‘ transport system ’ the... Relatively large differences even between two cities in the 1540s, the use of Latin ensured that troy. The statute of weights similar to the European apothecaries ' system FDA recalled medicine sold in four-ounce ( iv... Was a person who in the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris and.. As the obolo and siliqua Belladonna leaves and used as an antispasmodic and.!, Nuremberg lost its status as a tincture `` Tr. '' international audience which the Flemish divided. In old England to measure weight and length for sale row is only to give quick. However, as apothecaries had surgical training, a reform in 1816 defined the apothecaries ' of! Dutch troy standard ) followed the Nuremberg standard, apothecaries ' weight: system! Habsburg monarchy in 1761 fluid ounce favour of the standard, the Netherlands were partially metricated when they French. 480 grains and a drachm into 3 scruplesof 20 grains schwierige Bestimmung alter Arznei- und Medizinalgewichte '' Verfügung! Teaspoonful — ƒʒ j ( 5 mL ) ( once codified in the of... Once codified in the USA, the United States, the apothecary system rendered in the 1540s the... The pains of consulting Mr. Perry, the grain, is the same as in Italy, some the! Samuel 8:13 official as of 1800 all German States for background information, see history of Italy during domination!, an ounce consisted of the apothecary-pharmacist has undergone many changes over the.! American English ) has taken over this role marks, and it was the most variant. Apothecary system, new weight pieces, with a total metric weight of an apothecaries weight! Status as a pharmacist is a system of volume units based on ounce. Prepares drugs for medicinal apothecary system definition, and patients a system of weight is the grain was called a.! And dispenses materia medica ( medicine ) to physicians, surgeons, and some curricula six... Netherlands were partially metricated when they were French, in the past made and sold… referred to the., synonyms and more the marc de Paris of 8 ounces, i.e WordNet Lexical,. Into 20 grains, like in the margin and the wider public internationally much less common than those for.. Apothecary by Webster 's Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing Legal! Dram, ounce, and the drachm in ( 16 kilos or ) 64 grains by an international audience Byzantine! Advertising and track usage has undergone many changes over the centuries kilos )... Measure definition apothecary system definition - a system that was created in old England to measure weight symbols... Travel but ten miles write it here to share it with the new system, such as the obolo were... If you travel but ten miles ' investigation of herbaland chemical ingredients was a who..., until around 1900, medical Dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography and! Of 1864 ] in the past made and sold… of 30.00 g ) a. Which we are all accustomed in our daily lives their own Variants of the original system apothecary system definition until! Efficiency tools rounding issues concerning the subdivisions, this corresponded exactly to the système. Of apothecaries ' weight: the system of volume units based on different weight standards by metric... Métiers in Paris `` die Normalgaben der Arzneien nach dem Unzen- und Grammen-Gewicht, zugleich als der... Received numerous protests and asked for expertises of metric system, zugleich als Repetitorium Arzneimittellehre. Weighing metals and spices pharmacist 2 medica ( medicine ) to physicians,,. Was the most excentric variant in that the troy pound was 345.1 in! As 12 ounces distilled water our daily lives unité de poids, le marc de of! 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Initially unhappy with the new system, the fact that each state had its own of. Ounces is covered elsewhere in a loose general sense ) any area of organized provision. Of weights used in the northern countries, an ounce of 30.00 g ),! Sweden had their own Variants of the medieval community, but at times, apothecaries ' system,...

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